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BIOL& 160 General Biology. Instructor: Amy Lawrence: APA Documentation Style

Printable version of APA Documentation Style

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The Basic Structure

The basic components of an APA citation are:

Article, electronic version, with DOI (digital object identifier, an alpha-numeric string used to link to web content)
Author’s Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year or date of publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Vol.#, page number(s) if applicable. doi:##.####/##.####

Article, electronic version, without DOI
Author’s Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year or date of publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Vol.#, page number(s) if applicable. Retrieved [add date] from http://xxxxxxxx

Examples

Article, electronic version, with DOI
Schaeffer, A.M. (2008). Epidemiology and evaluation of chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 31, 108-111. doi: 10.1016/j. jantimicag.2007.08.027

Article, electronic version, without DOI
Weyandt, L. L., Iwaszuk, W., Fulton, K., Ollerton, M., Beatty, N., Fouts, H., et al. (2003). The internal restlessness scale: Performance of college students with and without ADHD. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36, 382-389. Retrieved January 20, 2004, from http://proquest.com...[etc.]

Article from a Web site
Dickey, C. (2004, February 20). Garbage in, garbage out. Newsweek. Retrieved February 23, 2004, from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4315416/

Parenthetical "In-Text" Citations

The following is taken from Purdue Online Writing Lab at the following website:  http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/02/

Short quotations

If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.

According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).

Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?

    If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.

She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.

Long quotations

Place direct quotations that are 40 words, or longer, in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.

Jones's (1998) study found the following:
    Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to  purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)

Summary or paraphrase

If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not required.)

According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).

 

Purdue Owl. In-Text Citations: The Basics. (2013)  http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/02/

Decoding a Citation