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ENGL 102 - Hoover: Cannabis History and Policy

Drug Policy Resources

(NEW legal opinion on I-502 Implementaiton)  http://www.atg.wa.gov/uploadedFiles/FosterAGO2014No02.pdf

(DEA website)  http://www.justice.gov/dea/index.shtml

(Medical Cannabis LCB recommendations) https://lcb.app.box.com/MMJ-Final-Rec

(NORML)  http://norml.org/  (click on map for WA state contacts)

(Drug Policy Alliance)  http://www.drugpolicy.org/

(Mothers Against Drunk Driving)  http://www.madd.org/

(Americans for Safe Access)  http://www.safeaccessnow.org/

(The Human Solution)  http://the-human-solution.org/

(FBI website)  http://www.fbi.gov/

(CDC website)  http://www.cdc.gov/

(LEAP)  http://www.leap.cc/

(CALM)  http://www.calmca.org/

(Author's Page) http://www.smokesignalsthebook.com/

(WA state Liquor Control Board)  http://liq.wa.gov/

(Frankie's Bar and Grill, Man Cave, and Cannabis Den)  https://www.facebook.com/frankiessportsbarandgrill

(Ecstacy Laws) http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2015/01/joe-biden-raves-mdma-death

(Drugs and Dementia)  http://medicalxpress.com/news/2015-01-higher-dementia-linked-common-drugs.html

(roadside thc test)  http://thejointblog.com/marijuana-breathalyzer/

(William F. Buckley Jr. The conservative case for ending drug prohibition) http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?sid=ebc2ed65-83c7-4439-94f6-c7fd052dcc18%40sessionmgr4007&vid=0&hid=4109&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=9601317643&db=aph

(USA use and attitudes from high quality source)  http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/04/14/6-facts-about-marijuana/














film clips and articles

(War on Cocaine and other Drugs) http://www.upworthy.com/i-thought-we-banned-cocaine-for-health-reasons-nope-not-even-close?c=reccon2

(One Native's view on State Law vs. Tribal Law) http://fusion.net/video/20926/cannabusiness-report-whats-happening-with-weed-on-indian-reservations/

(Patrick Kennedy/anti-marijuana/Colbert)  http://www.colbertnation.com/the-colbert-report-videos/432979/february-10-2014/patrick-kennedy

(Clearing the Smoke: The Science of Marijuana)  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l5Z9jc5EdDA

(Political Hearing)  http://www.upworthy.com/congressman-yells-at-drug-policy-director-when-he-refuses-to-answer-a-simple-marijuana-question?c=ufb1

(The Botony of Desire 1 of 2/Cannabis)  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WAqSed_YzXM

(The Botony of Desire 2 of 2/Cannabis)  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KOgnoKMlqG8

(Research on Marijuana use on Brain and future generations)  http://video.foxnews.com/v/3102140334001/new-research-suggests-marijuanas-effects-may-be-hereditary/#sp=show-clips&v=3102140334001

(Dr. Sanja Gupta documentary--focus on medical uses)  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z3IMfIQ_K6U

or https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hrVXRZY1_x0

 (Overview of Dr. Sanjay Gupta/Pierse Morgan) http://www.cnn.com/2013/08/08/health/gupta-changed-mind-marijuana/

(Compare to current heroin epidemic) http://theweek.com/article/index/255936/why-is-heroin-so-cheap

(Penn & Teller--humorous, plenty that might offend)  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mkYTK0s7ZUw

(You might enjoy seeing some of the characters from our text in this short video)  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Cj5NT-EMGg

(informal video with links to sources--overview--scroll down to click on source links)  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=im2R6xCGEFM

(National Geographic on Drugs)  http://www.oatherapychicago.com/marijuana.html

(True Life stories of marijuana addiction)  http://www.mtv.com/videos/true-life-im-addicted-to-marijuana/1687401/playlist.jhtml

(Peer-reviewed journal article)  http://www.msma.org/docs/communications/momed/Medicinal_Use_Cannabis.pdf

(Stories of marijuana addiction)  http://documentaryaddict.com/Marijuana+A+Second+Class+Addiction-1590-documentary.html


Cover Page and Reflections models


Lee Prologue, Chapters 1 & 2

Prohibition Film


“The horse is a wonderful vehicle because people relate to the cowboy image,” Wooldridge explained. “Then we start talking politics.” (1)

Why is this method of delivery necessary?  Also, the attention grabbing words on his t-shirt? Has cannabis become a subject in our society that is hard to bring up in conversation, due to fear or its perceived underground home? Lee proceeds to give figures that estimate that a large amount of the country has used, or is using the drug – so why is it hard to talk about? Wooldridge describes his lack of experience in seeing cannabis as harmful in his line of work, and so he helped form LEAP. During my lifetime I have only seen cannabis as a drug, a gateway to harder drugs like meth, and nothing more than a life destroyer (so I thought) – but here is a group of important figures saying the exact opposite. Millions of people using the drug in all walks of life, enjoying it, and not having problems. Cannabis enforcement could be a waste of money. https://www.aclu.org/drug-law-reform/against-drug-prohibition


Ancient people during the Neolithic period found uses for virtually every part of the plant, which has been cultivated by humans since the dawn of agriculture more than 10,000 years ago. (4)

Cannabis was an important part of human history, it provided many uses and was highly recommended for many medical problems, it lived and grew with humans as they spread around the globe. Why did such an important part of our history get thrown aside? It helped create our country. I never learned about cannabis in all the important aspects school, only that it was a bad drug. What more can we gain from cannabis that we don’t know? The more I learn, the more questions I come away with. The Hottentots, who applied it as a salve for snakebites, deemed dagga more valuable than gold.(14) Was this medically accurate, or close to it? Important to the region for a purpose. Hemp was considered so valuable that it served as a substitute for legal tender in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century America. (16) Even across the globe, although for different reasons at the time, cannabis and its relatives were of great importance.


But French Colonial authorities in Cairo thought otherwise. They were so disturbed by the scale of the hashish consumption among the native population that they tried to impose a ban on its use. (27)

Was this because the consumption of cannabis was a somewhat new topic for the culture? Something uncontrolled, and unfamiliar, like alcohol? Is it just in the nature of an authoritative figure to ban/impose rule? There was research done after this into the uses of cannabis, and it also became a new experience to try. Freed from his ego (“that odious and ever present witness”), he was seeing sounds and hearing colors. (28) Odious: extremely unpleasant; repulsive. Cannabis could have benefits for the physical body and for mental state, without the effects of alcohol – depending on a small or large dose (which could cause the user to become lethargic, which the French authorities wouldn’t want to happen, and the accounts in Cairo otherwise seemed positive). Awakens new thought in individuals and responsible for new ideas, and creativity.


Whereas the salt of the earth smoked pot as a palliative to help them cope with everyday tedium and despair, those of a more affluent standing tended to blame the problems of the less fortunate on the consumption of cannabis. (39) Everyday Americans used cannabis in their medicines, but when a minority introduces it for recreational use it creates another class barrier. It seems the notion of cannabis as a ‘bad drug’ began with this start of discrimination – although stories, poems, and plays were written about, it was researched, and experienced across countries by notable and average people – that created a domino effect to how cannabis is regulated, what it is associated with, and how it is viewed today in our society. This discrimination continued on and created the first bans on cannabis. In each case, the target of the prohibition was not the drug so much as those associated with its use. (42) Did these bans begin solely based on racial discrimination? If true, would this affect the opinions on cannabis today? Is cannabis really as harmful as we are lead to believe? While well intended, the law gave unprecedented power to federal bureaucrats to decide which drugs a person would be allowed to consume. (41) The Pure Food and Drug Act. What other affect did this have on the recreation consumption of cannabis?


Nothing so needs reforming as other people’s habits.  Prohibition began long before it came into law by way of the temperance movement. An idea that started out in a small amount of people, until it spread and gained/forced support. Not everybody wanted or needed temperance as part of their life but it eventually grew into a Constitutional Amendment – influenced by worldly events and immigrants. Like the beginning of the cannabis bans that were implemented to keep immigrants away from the areas, prohibition went into effect at a time when breweries/saloons were largely owned by Germans (a country we were at odds with) and part of prohibition was aimed at destroying these companies and getting them out of the country, because they were ‘German enemies’. It was meant to eradicate evil but turned millions of law abiding Americans into criminals. Does this same also apply to the criminalization of cannabis? In this case, evil would have been the immigrants to the eyes of early public officials, and in turn newspaper reports reaching out to the general public. Enacted in a climate of fear and hostility toward the swarthy, Spanish-speaking foreigners, early marijuana legislation was a handy instrument to keep the newcomers in their place. (41) Swarthy: dark-skinned. Is it now important to relook at why bans/prohibition why they were implemented, and reassess the reasons for doing so? Are there any general or medical uses for cannabis, (and there was for thousands of years) that we could be using today – but are not due to discrimination? Cannabis arrests are possibly even racially biased. https://www.aclu.org/criminal-law-reform/war-marijuana-black-and-white-report


Cover Page and Reflections Models

Here's another one, and I will add more if you would like--just let me know!

English 102


Week one reflection

            Last week when watching the film Prohibition I thought it was very interesting that beer was advertised as a health drink. I thought how strange that people would believe that pregnant women should drink a beer for their babys health. I also thought it was informative how those in the Temperance moderation movement (Prohibition film) started using schools and text books to show how alcohol causes health problems and delirium. It was very interesting how they said just one cup of alcohol could cause death. It is also interesting to think about drug education in schools now. How much of it is accurate?  Does education on drugs lead to drug use? Pros and cons of D.A.R.E http://dare.procon.org/#Background

            The fact that prohibition of alcohol did not stop people from drinking instead it caused a lot of people to break the law makes me wonder if the war against drugs in general is a lose cause because people are willing to break laws to get drugs. Could this be another one of those things that just causes more lawlessness? What if we made drugs legal and regulated them like we do alcohol and tobacco? I know this would not get rid of drugs but then I think making them illegal didnt either. However I think we could make it safer for those who do choose to use drugs. Just like alcohol we could set an age limit. Another thing that seemed educational was that those who did drink, drank more during prohibition than before it. According to the Pew Research Centers data, a historic number of Americans -- a majority of 52% --  now support marijuana legalization, and even more -- 60% of Americans -- say the federal government should not intervene in state-sanctioned marijuana laws.  While younger Americans (65% of Millennials and 54% of Generation Xers) are the most likely to support marijuana legalization, Baby Boomers (50%) and the older Silent Generation (32%) are increasingly favoring marijuana legalization, too.(http://www.alternet.org/poll-most-americans-not-buying-feds-drug-war-propaganda)

            When I read the prologue I was shocked to read about an ex-cop who wanted to legalize drugs. Then reading that after eighteen years on the force he never once received a call for help from a battered housewife or anyone else because of marijuana. I started thinking about whether or not I had misconceptions about people who use marijuana. Are we as a country wasting money and time searching cars for marijuana that could be used elsewhere? Convinced that the laws against marijuana were a lot wackier than the weed, Wooldridge and several ex-cops formed a group called Law Enforcement Against Prohibition (LEAP) in 2002,(Lee 2). Here is a video asking the president if there will ever come a time that we will talk about end the war on drugs.  http://copssaylegalize.blogspot.com/2011/01/in-youtubes-ask-obama-contest-drug.html

            The father of traditional Chinese medicine Shen Nung recommended marijuana, for more than a hundred ailments, including female weakness, gout, rheumatism, malaria, constipation, beri-beri, and absent-mindedness,’”  (Lee 4). I had no idea that marijuana was part of traditional Chinese medicine. Beri-beri is a caused by a deficiency of thiamin (vitamin B1) and characterized by impairment of the nerves and heart. Symptoms include loss of appetite and overall lassitude, digestive irregularities, and feelings of numbness and weakness in the limbs and extremities,(Britannica.com). http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/61908/beriberi I can see were marijuana would help people with beri-beri because the drug causes appetite to increase. There seems to be a lot of evidence supporting medical cannabis makes me wonder why the government did not keep medical cannabis all along.

            I thought it was very enlightening that Domestic hemp industry prospered during the early days of the American republic in large part because black slaves were utilized to plant, harvest, and process the crop,(Lee 18). I also had no idea that hemp had so many uses and I wondered why we switched to cotton? Then I read that the cotton gin made harvesting the cotton easier. While fiber hemp decline in commercial value that plants curative reputation was surging during the Civil War. (Lee 19) I can imagine that with all the wounded soldiers in need for a painkiller. The introduction of marijuana probably could have help a lot of soldiers to be relieved of their pain which, would also have been a substitute for hard liquor as a means of pain suppressant.

            In 1860, the Ohio state Medical Society conducted the first official U.S. government study of cannabis, surveying the medical literature and cataloging an impressive array of conditions that doctors had successfully treated with psychoactive hemp, ranging from bronchitis and rheumatism to venereal disease and postpartum depression,(Lee 26) I found it very amazing that founder of modern medicine Sir William Osler endorsed cannabis as the best treatment for migraine headaches, menstrual cramps and insomnia. Its oddly strange that the U.S. made all forms of cannabis illegal and that states had to fight for the right to have and sell medical cannabis. The results of the report on medical cannabis by the Institute of medicine (of the national Academy of Science) are being disseminated, and controlled studies will soon be undertaken and published. As a result, the US government will have to modify its policy of insistent denial that cannabis has medical uses,(Grinspoon). http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=12&sid=418b005d-570a-4fd7-9695-da02668a85bc%40sessionmgr198&hid=125&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=3984420

            Ludlow was the first American scribe to stake his reputation on the claim that certain substances, especially cannabis, can enliven consciousness and arouse creativitya belief that many young people would embrace with fervor in the 1960s,(Lee 33). I think a lot of people tried cannabis because they read about somebodys experience while on the drug. I thought it was very interesting that the movies made to stop people from smoking cannabis actually ended up getting some people to try it.

            The Harrison Act of 1914 extended federal control over narcotics so that a nonmedical consumer could not legitimately possess opiates or cocaine,(Lee 41) For the first time there was a legal distinction between medical and recreational drug use in the U.S. Though it seems that this act was used to trick physicians into giving narcotics to police informants pretending that they needed a painkiller. This also laid the foundation for drug prohibition. It seems to me that this did not stop drugs from being sold in the U.S. instead 25,000 doctors were arrested, 3,000 served prison sentences, and thousands more had their licenses revoked. Targeting doctors for prescribing medicine to those in need instead of looking for street dealers and their suppliersstrikes me as a cheap shot only to impress the news publications and government leaders looking for votes.






Cover Page and Reflection models

Reflections Cover Page


1.             Book chapter number:___5______

2.             Main idea summary from the author’s point of view. You may do this any way you like, but give an objective overview.  Write (or diagram) the summary using the voice and point of view of the author:


                I created this chapter to show that the war on drugs in the 1980s did not stop the illicit drug trade instead it helped to make marijuana and other drugs more profitable for drug dealers. My intent was to show how the enforcement of new drug laws created a boom in domestic marijuana growing in America and that the more the government tried to get rid of marijuana the more people become creative and found ways of growing marijuana indoors. Show how people were starting to build a coalition of resistance against the government’s illegalization of marijuana as well as showing that hemp was a sustainable crop that could be used for 25,000 industrial uses. Also to inform the reader showing how big companies like DuPont with their patent rights on artificially produced products put a stop to the hemp industry as they could profit from their plastic and synthetics, which contained far more toxins in their by products.  My approach wanted to show that the Dutch decided in the interest of public health and safety to take a different approach to marijuana based upon the recommendations of research into marijuana and how this different approach led to a reduction in hard-core drug use especially with injected drugs and more harmful drugs.


3.            What types of claims are being made (fact, value, or policy)? Circle one or more.

4.             Identify at least one unstated assumption held by the author:

That smoking marijuana got people thinking about the lies their government had told them.

5.             Characterize the writer’s voice and give a page number that has an example of what you mean:


6.             Intended purpose:

7.             Intended audience:


1.             Book chapter number:____6___

2.             Chapter main idea summary from the author’s point of view. You may do this any way you like, but give an objective overview.  Write (or diagram) the summary using the voice and point of view of the author:


I wrote this chapter to show how George H W Bush escalated the war on drugs even after the research into marijuana still showed that the drug could be safely used within supervised routine medical care. I thought it was noteworthy that Bush increased the federal antinarcotics budget by 7.8 billion. I wanted the reader to see that William Bennett who urged prosecutors to go after the weekend pot smokers not just the big time pushers led the war on drugs. Bennett would also seek to expand the nation’s prison system and how this turned a large proportion of US citizens into criminals. I though to inform the reader of how marijuana laws were being used to bring urban African Americans and Latinos in line not because they smoked marijuana but because they fit a demographic profile of a potential trouble makers. I wanted the reader to know that there was research that had found cannabinoid receptors in the brain and these receptors were concentrated in the regions responsible for mental and physiological processes. Scientists were able to clone these receptors and this opened the door for scientist to sculpt molecules of new drugs that fit these receptors that made the drugs work better. They also found a second type of cannabinoid receptor dubbed CB-2 that is prevalent through the peripheral nervous system and the immune system. These receptors are not responsible for the psychoactive high that pot gives the user instead these receptors regulate the immune system. Here is proof that marijuana acts everywhere not just in the brain. To inform the reader that the movement for medical marijuana was growing and there were several groups that crisscrossed America trying to inform people about marijuana. One group called Cannabis Action Network framed marijuana legalization as an ecological issue arguing that the plant should be granted amnesty in the drug war because it’s a sustainable source of fiber, fuel, medicine and paper. I thought it was noteworthy to show how California voter’s passed proposition 215 which gave people the right to use marijuana for medical reasons.




3.             What types of claims are being made (fact, value, or policy)? Circle one or more.

4.             Identify at least one unstated assumption held by the author:

That marijuana should be legalized because it is less harmful then alcohol

5.             Characterize the writer’s voice and give a page number that has an example of what you mean:


6.             Intended purpose:

7.             Intended audience:



1.             Book chapter number:___7_____

2.             Chapter main idea summary from the author’s point of view. You may do this any way you like, but give an objective overview.  Write (or diagram) the summary using the voice and point of view of the author:


I wrote this chapter to inform the reader of how the attorney general of California, Dan Lungren, launched a counterattack on medical marijuana. Dan Lungren believed that all marijuana use was for recreational purpose and there was no evidence for medical marijuana. He joined forces with federal agents and planed his attack on medical marijuana because of the wording in the proposition did not make smoking marijuana legal for medical purpose it only gave people the right to use marijuana for medical. As a defense in court should one be arrested for having marijuana after a visit to the doctors for a prescription? He threatens doctors that they would loose their license to write prescriptions even if they just mention marijuana to a patient. He also started arresting people who were using marijuana for medical reasons, and how he used search warrants to search people’s homes because they had shopped at a hydroponics store. He also tired to get Dr. Mikuriya research and support of medical marijuana discredited. The American Medical Association managed to pass a resolution backing physicians’ rights to discuss marijuana therapy with patients. I also thought it was noteworthy that once again AMA said more research needed to be done to ascertain if cannabis had any merit as a curative aid. I wanted to show how those who were in desperate need of marijuana for illness had to fight for their rights to use it and how most of them couldn’t even use the legal defense that they were using marijuana for medical reasons. I also wanted to show how some parts of California were medical marijuana friendly and come out to support people with a need for medical marijuana. There were other states that also passed medical marijuana laws so that people in need of relief from illness could use marijuana to help stop suffering. I wanted to inform the reader of how Veterans of war were treated and how smoking marijuana plays a key role in encoding and extinguishing aversive memories, yet if veterans even mention marijuana he would lose his VA privileges. The VA system continued to deal with mental health problems in an ad hoc way while record number of active duty soldiers and veterans committed suicide. VA doctors could not even discuss marijuana as a possible treatment. However there were groups of people trying to help these people get the rights to chose a medical treatment that would work better without so many side effects.       




3.             What types of claims are being made (fact, value, or policy)? Circle one or more.

4.             Identify at least one unstated assumption held by the author:


5.             Characterize the writer’s voice and give a page number that has an example of what you mean:


6.             Intended purpose:

7.             Intended audience:

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Dianne Carey
Olympic College
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