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Electronic Resources

A how-to guide for electronic resources

The following examples do not include hanging indentation or proper spacing--reference list entries should have a hanging indent of 0.5 inches and be double-spaced. Please see APA's Sample Papers

Source type

Reference list examples

Surnames and initials for up to 20 authors should be provided in reference list.

APA Manual


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (date). Title of article. Title of Periodical, 34(2), 5-14. DOI or URL

Section 10.1

Journal article with DOI

McCauley, S. M., & Christiansen, M. H. (2019). Language learning as language use: A cross-linguistic model of child language development. Psychological Review, 126(1), 1-51. https://doi.org/10.1037/rev0000126

p. 317

Journal article without DOI

Ahmann, E., Tuttle, L. J., Saviet, M., & Wright, S. D. (2018). A descriptive review of ADHD coaching research: Implications for college students. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 31(1), 17-39. https://www.ahead.org/professional-resources/publications/jped/archived-jped/jped-volume-31

p. 317

Magazine or newspaper article without DOI

Goldman, C. (2018, November 28). The complicated calibration of love, especially in adoption. Chicago Tribune.

Guarino, B. (2017, December 4). How will humanity react to alien life? Psychologists have some  predictions. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/speaking_of_science/wp/2017/12/04

p. 317, p. 320

Blog post

Klymsowsky, M. (2018, September 15). Can we talk scientifically about free will? Sci-Ed. https://blogs.plos.org/scied/2018/09/15/can-we-talk-scientifically-about-free-will/

p. 320

Comment on an online article or post

KS in NJ. (2019, January 15). From this article, it sounds like men are figuring out something that women have known forever. I know of many [Comment on the article “How workout buddies can help stave off loneliness”]. The Washington Post. https://wapo.st/2HDToGJ

p. 320

Books, book chapters, and reference entries

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of book (2nd ed., E. E. Editor, Ed.). Publisher Name. DOI or URL [if given].

Author, A. A. (year). Title of chapter. In E. E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. 3-12). Publisher Name. DOI or URL [if given].

Sections 10.2 and 10.3



Printed Book
Burgess, R. (2019). Rethinking global health: Frameworks of power. Routledge.

Book with DOI (e-book from library database)

Rabinowitz, F. E. (2019). Deepening group psychotherapy with men: Stories and insights for the journey. American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000132-000

p. 321

Edited book

Meadows, D. H. (2008). Thinking in systems: A primer (D. Wright, Ed.). Chelsea Green Publishing.

Pridham, K. F., Limbo, R., & Schroeder, M. (Eds.). (2018). Guided participation in pediatric nursing practice. Springer Publishing Company. http://a.co/0IAiVgt

p. 322

Book chapter

Weinstock, R., Leong, G. B., & Silva, J. A. (2003). Defining forensic psychiatry: Roles and responsibilities. In R. Rosner (Ed.), Principles and practice of forensic psychiatry (2nd ed., pp. 7-13). CRC Press.

p. 326

Work in an anthology

Lewin, K. (1999). Group decision and social change. In M. Gold (Ed.), The complete social scientist: A Kurt Lewin reader (pp. 265-284). American Psychological Association.

p. 328

Diagnostic manual

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10/1176/appi.books/9780890425596

p. 324

Entry in a dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Self-report. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved July 12, 2019, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/self-report

List of oldest companies. (2019, January 13). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index/php?title=List_of_oldest_companies&oldid

pp. 328-329

Reports and gray literature

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (date). Title of report (Report No. 123). Publisher name. DOI or URLName of Group. (date). Title of gray literature [Description]. Publisher name. DOI or URL

Section 10.4

Report by a government agency or organization

National Cancer Institute. (2018). Facing forward: Life after cancer treatment (NIH Publication No. 18-2424). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/life-after-treatment.pdf

Fried, D., & Polyakova, A. (2018). Democratic defense against disinformation. Atlantic Council. https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/publications/imagesDefense_Against_Information/pdf

pp. 329-330

Policy brief

Harwell, M. (2018). Don’t expect too much: The limited usefulness of common SES measures and a prescription for change [Policy brief]. National Education Policy Center. https://nepc.colorado.edu/publications/SES

p. 331

Conference presentations

Presenter, A. A., & Presenter, B. B. (year, month days). Title of contribution [Type of contribution]. Conference Name, Location. DOI or URL

Section 10.5

Poster presentation

Pearson, J. (2018, September 27-30). Fat talk and its effects of state-based body image in women [Poster presentation]. Australian Psychological Society Congress, Sydney, NSW, Australia. http://bit.ly/2XGSThp

p. 333

Paper presentation

Maddox, S., Hurling, J., Stewart, E., & Edwards, A. (2016, March 30-April 2). If mama ain’t happy, nobody’s happy: The effect of parental depression on mood dysregulation in children [Paper presentation]. Southeastern Psychological Association 62nd Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, United States.

p. 332

Data sets and tests

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. OR Name of Group. (year or year range). Title of data set (Version #) [Data set OR Unpublished raw data]. Publisher Name or Source. DOI or URL

Section 10.9

Data set

National Center for Education Statistics. (2016). Fast Response Survey System (FRSS): Teachers’ use of educational technology in U.S. public schools, 2009 (ICPSR 35531; Version V3) [Data set and code book]. National Archive of Data on Arts and Culture. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR35531.v3

p. 338

Online content and media and artistic works

Author, A. A. (Role, if necessary). (date). Title of work (season or episode number, if applicable) [description of media]. Production company, museum, or platform. URL

Sections 10.12, 10.13, 10.14, 10.15

Film or video

Forman, M. (Director). (1975). One flew over the cuckoo’s nest [Film]. United Artists.

pp. 342-43

TV series episode or webisode

Barris, K. (Writer & Director). (2017, January 11). Lemons (Season 3, Episode 12) [TV series episode]. In K. Barris, J. Groff, A. Anderson, E. B. Dobbins, L. Fishburne, & H. Sugland (Executive Producers), Black-ish. Wilmore Films; Artists First; Cinema Gypsy Productions; ABC Studios.

p. 343

Streaming video

University of Oxford. (2018, December 6). How do geckos walk on water? [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qm1xGfOZJc8

**The person or group who uploaded the video is credited as the author for retrievability, even if they did not create the work.

p. 344

Podcast episode

Glass, I. (Host). (2011, August 12). Amusement park (No. 443) [Audio podcast episode]. In This American life. WBEZ Chicago. https://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/443/amusement-park

p. 345

Artwork on a museum website

Wood, G. (1930). American gothic [Painting]. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States. https://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/6565

p. 346


Rossman, J., & Palmer, R. (2015). Sorting through our space junk [Infographic]. World Science Festival. https://www.worldsciencefestival.com/2015/11/space-junk-infographic/

p. 346


Cable, D. (2013). The racial dot map [Map]. University of Virginia, Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service. https://demographics.coopercenter.org/Racial-Dot-Map

p. 347


McCurry, S. (1985). Afgan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic. https://www.nationageographic.com/magazine/national-geographic-magazine-50-years-of-covers/#/ngm_1985-jun-714.jpg

p. 347


Badlands National Park [@BadlandsNPS]. (2018, February 26). Biologists have identified more than 400 different plant species growing in @BadlandsNPS #DYK #biodiversity [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/BadlandsNPS/status/968196500412133379

p. 348

Facebook post

National Institute of Mental Health. (2018, November 28). Suicide affects all ages, genders, races, and ethnicities. Check out these 5 Action Steps for Helping Someone in Emotional Pain [Infographic]. Facebook. http://bit.ly/321Qstq

p. 349

Online forum post

National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA]. (2018, September 12). I’m NASA astronaut Scott Tingle. Ask me anything about adjusting to being back on Earth after my first spaceflight! [Online forum post]. Reddit. https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/9fagqy/im_nasa_astronaut_scott_tingle_ask_me_anything/

p. 350

Webpages and websites

Author, A. A. OR Name of Group. (date). Title of work. Site name. URL


Webpage on a news website

Amramova, N. (2019, January 3). The secret to a long, happy, healthy life? Think age-positive. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/01/03/health/respect-toward-elderly-leads-to-life-intl/index.html

p. 351

Webpages on an organizational website

World Health Organization. (2018, March). Questions and answers on immunization and vaccine safety. https://www.who.int/features/qa/84/en/

p. 351

Statutes (Laws and Acts)

Name of Act, Title Source § Section Number (Year). URL

**Consult APA Section 11.5; To type the § symbol, hold down Alt and type 0167.

Section 11.5

Federal statute

Every Student Succeeds Act, 20 U.S.C. § 6301 (2015). https://www.congress.gov/114/plaws/publ95/PLAW-114publ95.pdf

pp. 362-63

Personal communications

              S. Source (personal communication, date)

**Works that cannot be recovered by readers, including emails, personal interviews, and class lectures without an external repository, are cited in the text as personal communications and not included in the reference list.

Section 8.9

Personal communication cited in text

T. Nguyen (personal communication, August 8, 2019)

(T. Nguyen, personal communication, August 8, 2019)

p. 260

Course material

If course material comes from a resource that your audience has access to (e.g., a Canvas site), provide the name of site and URL. If your audience does not have access to that resource,cite the course material as a personal communication (see the section above).

Sections 8.9 and 10.14

Lecture notes

Canan, E., & Vasilev, J. (2019, May 22). [Lecture notes on resource allocation.] Department of Management Control and Information Systems, University of Chile. https://uchilefau.academia.edu/ElseZCanan

p. 347

Lecture slides

Mack, R., & Spake, G. (2018). Citing open source images and formatting references for presentations [PowerPoint slides]. Canvas@FNU. https://fnu.onelogin.com/login

p. 347