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Statistics & Polls: APA & MLA Citations

MLA Examples: Electronic Resources

New! ► If a date is not available for an electronic format, write n.d. for no date; if a publisher is not named on a Web site, write n.p. for no publisher; if a page number is not given for online journal or database articles, write n.pag. for no pagination.

New! ► URLs are not required. However, you are welcome to provide the URL if the citation information may not help the reader easily find the source on their own. Your instructor may also require you to provide URLs.

Online periodical article from an electronic database (i.e. ProQuest) with page numbers listed
Weyandt, Lisa, et al. “The Internal Restlessness Scale: Performance of College Students With and Without ADHD.”Journal of Learning Disabilities 36.3 (2003): 382-89. ProQuest. Web. 20 Jan. 2004.

Online periodical article from an electronic database (i.e. ProQuest) without page numbers
Khan, Adnan. “Imprisoned in the Past.” Maclean’s 121.47 (2008): n.pag. Academic Search Premier. Web. 21 Apr. 2009.

Online periodical article from a Web site
Dickey, Christopher. “Garbage In, Garbage Out.” Newsweek.com. Newsweek, 20 Feb. 2004. Web. 23 Feb. 2004.

Document from a Web site, with author(s) and date of publication
Head, Alison and Michael Eisenberg. “Finding Context: What Today’s College Students Say about Conducting Research in the Digital Age.” ProjectInfoLit. Project Information Literacy, Feb. 2009. Web. 21 Apr. 2009.

Document from a Web site, unknown author, no date
“What Parents Should Know About Information Literacy.” LibraryInstruction.com. LibraryInstruction.com. n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2009.

Entire Web site, unknown author
Information Literacy. Information Literacy Portal, University of Idaho, 2009. Web. 21 Apr. 2009.

Online government publication
United States. Dept. of Justice. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Capital Punishment, 2005. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2006. Web. 20 Feb. 2007.


Online posting (discussion group, listserv, etc.)
Abbess, Jo. “What Ahmadinejad actually said, well translated.” Media Lens Message Board. Media Lens, 21 Apr. 2009. Web. 21 April 2009.

Weblog (“blog”) entry
Jerz, Dennis G. "Citing a Weblog in MLA Style." Jerz's Literacy Weblog. Seton Hill University, 11 Dec 2003. Web. 01 Mar. 2004.

Wiki entry
“Cashew.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 21 Apr. 2009. Web. 21 Apr. 2009.

APA Examples: Electronic Sources

Online periodical article from a database (e.g. ProQuest) without DOI
Weyandt, L. L., Iwaszuk, W., Fulton, K., Ollerton, M., Beatty, N., Fouts, H., et al. (2003). The internal restlessness scale: Performance of college students with and without ADHD. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36, 382-389. Retrieved January 20, 2004, from ProQuest database.

Online periodical article from a database (e.g. ProQuest) with DOI
Schaeffer, A.M. (2008). Epidemiology and evaluation of chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 31, 108-111. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2007.08.027

Online periodical article from a Web site (whose URL or content may change over time)
Dickey, C. (2004, February 20). Garbage in, garbage out. Newsweek. Retrieved February 23, 2004, from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4315416/

Information from a Web site
Kochanek, K.D. & Martin, J.A. (2004, February 11). Supplemental analyses of recent trends in infant mortality. Retrieved February 20, 2004, from National Center for Health Statistics Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/infantmort/infantmort.htm

Corporate author on a Web site
Hood Canal Coordinating Council. Hood Canal Regional Knotweek Control Strategy, from http://hccc.wa.gov/Salmon+Recovery/HCRKCS/default.aspx

Electronic book, entire book
Moynihan, R. & Cassels, A. (2005). Selling sickness: How drug companies are turning us all into patients [NetLibrary version]. Retrieved from http://www.netlibrary.com

Electronic book chapter
Viruses, worms and other Malware. (2006). In Bradley, Tony & Carvey, Harlan, Essential computer security: Everyone’s guide to e-mail, internet and wireless security. Retrieved from http://www.netlibrary.com

Electronic reference work
Rosenblum (2009). Carbon taxes. In Cioff, David & Goudie, Andrew (Eds.), Oxford Companion to global change. Retrieved from Oxford Reference Online http://www.oxfordref.com

Internet message boards, electronic mailing lists, etc.)
Dewsbery, V. (1999, September 24). Re: Electrical installations [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/term/message/106

Blog entry
Cool, J. (2002, October 4). Re: Learning to dress cool. [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://joe.cool.com/diary/

Video blog post
Dylan, Bob (1963). Blowin' in the Wind [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ItnI_2Xx9Yg


►New in the 6th edition!

  • If a final version of an article is being referenced there is no need for a retrieval date.
  • If a DOI is given, there is no need to include a database name or URL.
  • If no DOI is given, give the exact URL, or the URL of the journal home page if the content is accessible by subscription
  • Use “Available from” instead of “Retrieved from” when the URL leads to information on how to obtain the material rather than to the material itself.
  • Include the database name for e-books to aid readers in finding the electronic version.